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# Lesson 3.6: Roman Numerals

## Explanation

Capital and lower case Roman numerals are used in both mathematical and literary contexts. In a literary context, for example, they are used to represent copyright dates and page numbers. Roman numerals are represented by letters, which are literary characters. However, they are considered to be mathematical symbols when used in a mathematical expression. Roman numerals are used in numbering problems, problem identifiers, and with material that is subdivided, outlines.

### Capitalized Roman Numerals

When it is not part of a mathematical expression, use the English letter indicator, dots five six. Also, the capitalization indicator, dot six, is used before a single capitalized letter.

### Example 1

capital Roman Numeral for one

$I$
⠰⠠⠊

### Example 2

capital Roman Numeral for five

$V$
⠰⠠⠧

### Example 3

capital Roman Numeral for ten

$X$
⠰⠠⠭

### Example 4

capital Roman Numeral for fifty

$L$
⠰⠠⠇

### Example 5

capital Roman Numeral for one hundred

$C$
⠰⠠⠉

### Example 6

capital Roman Numeral for one thousand

$M$
⠰⠠⠍

Roman numerals are mathematical symbols and should be punctuated as mathematical symbols.

### Example 7

$XIV$
⠠⠠⠭⠊⠧

Use the mathematical comma, hyphen, long dash, and ellipsis with Roman numerals in the same manner as they would be used with any other mathematical symbol.

### Example 8

capital Roman Numerals with commas

$XXIV\text{,}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}XV\text{,}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}XVI$
⠠⠠⠭⠭⠊⠧⠠⠀⠠⠠⠭⠧⠠⠀⠠⠠⠭⠧⠊

### Example 9

capital Roman Numerals with ellipses

$XXV\dots C$
⠠⠠⠭⠭⠧⠀⠄⠄⠄⠀⠰⠠⠉

### Lower Case Roman Numerals

Use the English letter indicator, dots five six, before a lowercase Roman numeral which is not part of a mathematical expression. Whether or not a single letter or several letters are used to represent the Roman numeral, the English letter indicator precedes the lowercase numeral. The effect of the English letter indicator is ended by one of the following: a space, punctuation indicator, mark of punctuation, or any symbol other than a letter.

### Example 10

$v$
⠰⠧

### Example 11

$iii$
⠰⠊⠊⠊

### Example 12

$mcii$
⠰⠍⠉⠊⠊

The effect of the English Letter Indicator is ended by a space, a punctuation indicator, or a symbol.

Roman numerals represent a constant value. They are not variables and they do not change. The use of the English letter indicator and the double capitalization indicator distinguishes between Roman numerals and variables in braille. When two or more capital letters are used such as to label a diagram, each letter must be preceded by a capitalization indicator.