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# Lesson 2.1: Abbreviations

## Symbols

$°\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\text{degree or hollow dot}$
⠘⠨⠡

## Explanation

A combination or group of letters that represent larger words are known as abbreviations. Abbreviations are sometimes used to represent units of measurement. Abbreviations may or may not be followed by a period. When abbreviations contain capital letters, the literary rules for capitalization should be followed. Remember that the effect of the double capitalization indicator ends when a space or non-letter occurs.

A space should be left before and after an abbreviation and a numeral or letter, a sign of operation, a sign of comparison, a monetary sign, a percent sign, a sign of omission, or any other mathematical symbol.

If an abbreviation is only a single letter or would be misread as a short-form word, an English letter indicator must be used before the abbreviation unless the abbreviation is followed by a period.

Contractions for the words to, into, and by should not be used before an abbreviation.

Some common abbreviations for measurement of time, temperature, length, and weight are as follows:

$\text{inches:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{in}$
⠊⠝

$\text{feet:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{ft}$
⠋⠞

$\text{yard:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{yd}$
⠽⠙

$\text{miles:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{mi}$
⠍⠊

$\text{cups:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{c}$
⠰⠉

$\text{pints:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{pt}$
⠏⠞

$\text{quarts:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{qt}$
⠟⠞

$\text{gallons:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{gal}$
⠛⠁⠇

$\text{ounces:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{oz}$
⠕⠵

$\text{pounds:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{lbs}$
⠇⠃⠎

$\text{tons:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{T}$
⠰⠠⠞

$\text{millimeters:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{mm}$
⠍⠍

$\text{centimeters:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{cm}$
⠉⠍

$\text{decimeters:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{dm}$
⠙⠍

$\text{meters:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{m}$
⠰⠍

$\text{kilometers:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{km}$
⠅⠍

$\text{milliliters:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{mL}$
⠍⠠⠇

$\text{liters:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{L}$
⠰⠠⠇

$\text{grams:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{g}$
⠰⠛

$\text{kilograms:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{kg}$
⠅⠛

$\text{degrees Fahrenheit:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{℉}$
⠘⠨⠡⠀⠰⠠⠋

$\text{degrees Celsius:}\phantom{\rule{.3em}{0ex}}\mathrm{℃}$
⠘⠨⠡⠀⠰⠠⠉

### Example 1

$1\mathrm{foot}=12\mathrm{in.}$
⠼⠂⠀⠋⠕⠕⠞⠀⠨⠅⠀⠼⠂⠆⠀⠊⠝⠲

### Example 2

$5\mathrm{m}$
⠼⠢⠀⠰⠍

### Example 3

$20\mathrm{oz.}$
⠼⠆⠴⠀⠕⠵⠲

### Example 4

$1\mathrm{yd}>1\mathrm{ft}$
⠼⠂⠀⠽⠙⠀⠨⠂⠀⠼⠂⠀⠋⠞

### Example 5

$75°\mathrm{F}$
⠼⠶⠢⠘⠨⠡⠀⠰⠠⠋

### Example 6

$43°\mathrm{C}$
⠼⠲⠒⠘⠨⠡⠀⠰⠠⠉